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For population TC1966 × NM92, 56,154,121 sequencing reads, each 101 bp long, were obtained and 48,105,477 reads with the barcode followed by the restriction site remnant and no ambiguous base in the first 64 bp were mapped to 258,151 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Division of Agricultural Biodiversity, Plant Resources Center, Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agriculture Sciences, An Khanh, Hoai Duc, Ha Noi, Vietnam, Entomology, World Vegetable Center, 60 Yi Min Liao, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan, Depertment of Agronomy, National Taiwan University, No. Yao Y, Cheng X, Ren G. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats. Marker 3:10,830,930 was physically mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to markers on chromosome 5. Markers linked to bruchid resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have been identified by [12, 13, 21]. 6 0 obj sublobata) and cultivated V. radiata through genotyping by sequencing and quantitative trait locus analysis. A strong QTL for bruchid resistance on chromosome 5 was mapped in mungbean populations derived from TC1966 and V2802, suggesting the presence of the same QTL loci in both resistance sources. J Econ Entomol. (DOCX 1189 kb). statement and For cross V2802 × NM94 (F7) 437,644,283 reads were obtained from 141 F7 plants and 2 parental lines, and 376,822,250 reads containing full barcode and restriction remnant sites were aligned to 934,484 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Google ScholarÂ. Cookies policy. Recently, [13] confirmed the presence of resistance genes against bruchids on chromosome 5 of TC1966. To assess whether all markers associated with bruchid resistance by inclusive composite interval mapping indeed map to chromosome 5, the primer and amplification product sequences of markers dCAPS 2 and dCAPS 3 were mapped to available mungbean sequences. Liu et al. Abstract. 2015;3:39–46. Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, # How to Harvest Mung Bean // Each seed batch was inoculated with 20 newly emerged bruchid adults for mating and laying eggs on the seeds. 2016;16(1):1. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. Sun L, Cheng X-Z, Wang S-H, Wang L-X, Liu C-Y, Mei L, et al. : 81180341. It is consumed as grains or as sprouts, the green pods are eaten as a vegetable, and it is processed into a variety of products such as noodles, sweets or drinks. Privacy 128, Sec. Therefore, selection based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of mung bean. The syntenic relationship of the bambara groundnut genetic map derived from two populations to common bean, adzuki bean and mung bean genomes is illustrated in Fig. Stem: Erect to sub-erect, highly branching and hairy. In this investigation the nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have been estimated. QTL analysis was done with the IciMapping software using interval and inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps as well as on markers ordered according to their physical map position in the reference sequence of VC1973 [26]. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plays a vital role in the health and nutritional security of human beings. STRUCTURE. All authors have read and approved the manuscript. Genomic DNA was either available from the GBS experiment, or was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to [32]. The marker bins located at this QTL contained 51 markers physically mapped to chromosome 5, 30 to chromosome 4 (position 15,135,409 to 15,572,752) and 7 to chromosome 3 (10,421,576 to 10,579,209) of the reference genome sequence. 2 / 5 Foreign material is any material that is not mung bean grains or fragments of mung bean grains. 1992;85(4):1150–3. Bruchid resistance in TC1966 has been mapped previously. Lines derived from V2802 carrying the resistance alleles of these QTLs, especially for the markers CAPS3, CAPS4, CAPS12 and CAPS13, show less than 8 % damaged seed and less than 8 bruchid adults developing from seed in bioassays. Google ScholarÂ, Kang YJ, Kim SK, Kim MY, Lestari P, Kim KH, Ha BK, et al. DNA was quantified on a Qubit fluorometer using a Qubit assay kit (Invitrogen). 4a, b and c.From 11 linkage groups, four linkage groups (LG4, 8, 9 and 11 with LG9 being putative in adzuki bean genome due to a limited number of links) were found to map … Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. In both populations CAPS markers physically mapping to chromosome 3, 4 and 5 were highly diagnostic and predicted resistance and susceptibility correctly in both populations. Roland Schafleitner. 2013;192(2):205–16. >> Narengenin derivatives and use thereof. 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei, 115, Taiwan, Horticulture and Landscape Architecture / Horticulture Section, Experimental Farm, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture National Taiwan University, No. Markers previously described to be associated with bruchid resistance showed a segregation pattern similar to other chromosome 5 QTL-linked markers and failed to explain the intermediate phenotypes (Additional file 3: Table S3). Interestingly, both V2802 and TC1966 exhibited sequence variations in the probable LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase Vradi05g04130.1 predicting differences in the amino acid sequence compared to bruchid susceptible lines NM92 and NM94 (Additional file 4: Table S4). Together with the available whole genome information of mungbean [26], this technology greatly facilitated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to identify markers associated with a trait of interest such as bruchid resistance. 1996;3:23–31. Despite these benefits, expansion of the mungbean growing area is limited, mainly due to diseases and pests affecting the crop and reducing yield and profitability. TC1966 × NM92 families carrying the resistance allele for chromosome 5 showed higher seed damage than V2802 × NM94 families, suggesting a contribution of NM94 to resistance. Southgate BJ. Nevertheless, additional ambiguity in genetic mapping of markers in TC1966 × NM92 may be due to the small population size. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. One of the major insect pests of mungbean is bruchids. The most recent map, reported by Isemura et al. JIRCAS J. is observed along the lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD … /BitsPerComponent 8 NM92 and NM94 have been selected from a cross between VC2768-B and VC2768-A with gamma-irradiated F1 hybrids of cross VC1973A × VC6601, respectively [29]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8. Bruchid-resistance tests were performed on 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and 141 families over three generations (F3, F5 and F7) for V2802 × NM94 in three biological replicates of 40 seeds each, using a method described in [12]. For V2802 the pedigree is unknown, and TC1966 V. radiata var. /Length 74 Molecular markers tightly linked to bruchid resistance loci of two different mungbean resistance sources were developed and validated. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. BLACKGRAM (URDBEAN) Botanical name: Phaseolus mungo L. Family: Fabaceae (Leguminoceae) Chromosome number: 2n=22 or 24. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Inflorescence: raceme. Sixty-one F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance. Markers in or flanking the QTL intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the mapping population. volume 16, Article number: 159 (2016) In addition, the chromosome 5 QTLs detected on genetic maps of both populations contained also markers that physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4. Ans. Mung Bean is one of the most popular pulses across the world. The Tassel 5 standalone pipeline was followed as outlined in the manual. 2011;3(9):1399–415. For the alternative resistance source V2802, no information on the chromosomal location of the resistance gene(s) and no markers associated with these loci were available. doi:10.1007/s00122-016-2731-1. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. The phenotypic data on % damage and number of adults of each replicate as well as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately. Plant Breed. These pests first infect the grain in the field, at low levels. 1, Sec. 2015;76:80–5. Fujii K, Ishimoto M, Kitamura K. Patterns of resistance to bean weevils (Bruchidae) in Vigna-radiata-mungo-sublobata complex inform the breeding of new resistant varieties. Before ligation, quality control of the fragmentation of the genomic DNA was tested by comparing digested, un-digested and mock-digested (reaction contained restriction enzyme buffer, but no enzyme) DNA with each other on 1 % agarose gels. Molecular markers tightly associated with resistance would improve selection efficiency, drastically reduce the number of required resistance tests, and greatly lower the selection costs. Habit: cultivated annual herb. Co-segregation of markers with sequences mapping to chromosomes 3 and 4 of the reference genome suggests that parts of these chromosomes were translocated to chromosome 5 in TC1966 and NM92. Two of these markers were dominant in population V2802 × NM94 and all three markers were highly diagnostic for bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94. A SNP marker physically mapping to position 10,830,930 of chromosome 3 and delimiting the chromosome 5 QTL on the genetic map of V2802 × NM94 could not be converted to a PCR-based marker. Article  (XLSX 343 kb), Interval mapping of bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 x NM94 and V2802. YJY, YMR and NR developed the segregating populations, RS provided bruchid resistance data, CSH, TCW and HSM made the GBS libraries, HSM, CCY, SR, TCW, KB and WDC performed the bioinformatics analysis, TGB and SR designed the PCR-based markers, HSM, LCY and YJY performed the marker assays, and SR drafted the manuscript. In sprouted form, try adding the sprouts to salads or sandwiches. The diagnostic capacity of the identified molecular markers located in the QTL to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 %. Both interval and inclusive composite interval mapping failed to identify modifier genes required to explain the presence of intermediate phenotypes in highly homozygote recombinant inbred lines that were produced by single seed descent. Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is cultivated on about 6 million hectares, mainly in Asia. with a chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 22. hese species include, for example, common bean, runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), cowpea, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek], and pigeonpea. Marker RP was polymorphic in the population, but the low quality of the obtained bands did not allow reliable scoring for this marker. , consisted of 11 linkage groups. Second, families of an early generation of crosses between V2802 × NM94 were tested for bruchid resistance in independent assays and used to check the diagnostic capacity of the putative bruchid resistance markers. Generation advancement by single seed descent led to increased homozygous plants, raising the number of completely resistant and susceptible families in the subsequent generations. (DOCX 14 kb), Marker genotypes of families of the mapping populations TC1966 × NM92 and V2802 × NM94 at bruchid resistance loci. [21] mapped bruchid resistance of a different mungbean line (V2709) to intervals defined by marker pairs MB-87 – COPU11 and RP –COPU06. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species. PubMed  /Height 6 However, strict co-segregation of dCAPS2 and 3 with markers located on chromosome 5 indicate genetic linkage of these markers. Taxonomy ID 3916 Data source Seoul National University The DNA bands were visualized under ultraviolet light and the smear of DNA fragments in the size range between 300 and 500 bp was cut out from the gel. Lines carrying the V2709 resistance gene were suggested to be safe for human consumption based on an animal oral toxicity study [22]. Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. 2016;1–11. Sustainability. Then it will be reason of harvesting of mung bean not on proper time. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. Fernandez GCJ, Talekar NS. The marker genotypes for CAPS12 depicting the diagnostic capacity of this marker in both populations is shown in Fig. 4. For all these reasons, breeders are reluctant to use TC1966 as a bruchid resistance source. Subsequently, the markers tightly associated with bruchid resistance were tested in 86 F3 families of V2802 × NM94. There have been reports of SSR identification in mung bean (Gwag et al. We thank Dr. Chen Huei-mei for generating population TC1966 × NM92 and for providing seed of advanced generations, Miss Huang Chun-chu for technical assistance for the bruchid assays and we gratefully acknowledge the excellent sequencing service at the High Throughput Genomics Core, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, for performing Next Generation sequencing. AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism; CAPS, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; cM, centimorgan; dCAPS, derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; GBS, genotyping-by-sequencing; I, inner primer; LOD, logarithm of odds; O, outer primer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; QTL, quantitative trait locus; RIL, recombinant inbred line; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; sp., species; TBE, tris-borate-EDTA; var., variety. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. PubMed  Three gene-based markers recently found associated with resistance in TC1966 × NM92 [13] were also tested in V2802 x NM94 (Additional file 3: Table S3). The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) is an important grain legume. 2010;48(6):401–6. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with resistance to bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.) In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802 × NM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100 % resistant. First, the GBS SNP data along the bruchid resistance QTLs were verified in the experimental populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers. These mapping data suggested the presence of two resistance loci. J Stored Prod Res. Two steps of QTL data validation were performed. (DOCX 18 kb), Genotypes of markers for QTLs detected by interval mapping on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 of TC1966 × NM92 or V2802 × NM94. (16.55) and number of clusters per plant (14.71). The annealing temperature was adjusted for each primer combination. Reconstructing the elite line phenotype after resistance introgression may require several generations of backcrossing due to linkage drag, while resistance screening at each back-cross generation through bioassays is costly and error-prone (reviewed by [23]). Root: Tap root system, the root contain nodule having the N 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. The mung bean is mainly cultivated in East Asia, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (coleoptera: bruchidae). US Patent 6,770,630B2. Alternative resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean. In V2802 × NM94, markers physically mapped at 5,622,070, 5,662,479, 5,953,917 and 5,974,663 were 100 % co-segregating with resistance phenotype. Mol Breed. The largest chromosome numberincrease(n=9ton=20,vian=10? Blackgram or mashis one of the important kharifpulse crops of India. Recently, a polygalacturonase inhibitor gene located at this position was suggested to be responsible for bruchid resistance in mungbean [24]. number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. Tags were mapped to the reference sequence [26] using the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment Tool (http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml). Effects of bruchid-resistant mungbean meal on growth and blood-biochemical values in mice. In rice bean (V. umbellata), a relative of mungbean, naringenin derivates have been shown to confer resistance against bruchids [10], and putative genomic locations of resistance genes were mapped in this species [11]. 2006;Kumar et al. Characterization of Callosobruchus chinensis (coleoptera: bruchidae) resistance in mungbean. Mung bean seeds are sprouted for use either fresh or canned. Callosobruchus sp. A second population was established from cross V2802 (bruchid resistant) × NM94 (bruchid-susceptible) and 150 lines were advanced, also by single seed descent, to the F7 generation. This means mung bean nutrition becomes more absorbable by the human body. These markers are highly useful for developing resistant lines. Sarmah BK, Moore A, Tate W, Molvig L, Morton RL, Rees DP, et al. Seven days after inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of at least 2 eggs per seed was checked. [13] showed that there are large variations in genome size of different mungbean lines and demonstrated chromosomal rearrangements in TC1966 compared to the reference sequence of VC1973, especially on chromosome 5. The primers of this marker map at a distance of more than 7,000 bp from each other on the VC1973 reference genome sequence, but yielded PCR fragments between 300 and 400 bp in size, indicating again rearrangement along chromosome 5 in the lines used by this study compared to VC1973. Genetic maps were constructed with the IciMapping software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds (LOD) of 6. Keneni G, Bekele E, Getu E, Imtiaz M, Damte T, Mulatu B. Talekar NS, Lin C-P. Order of markers putatively associated with bruchid resistance in TC1966 × NM92 (a) and V2802 × NM94 (b). A QTL for reduced number of bruchid adults was located at the same position, with an LOD of 32.0 explaining 91.7 % of the trait variation and an additive effect of −20.7 emerging adult bruchids. Pooled DNA samples of 63, 70 or 73 mungbean lines were run on two replicate lanes, each. The QTL intervals are indicated by black bars. 2011;47(1):8–12. /ColorSpace [/Indexed /DeviceRGB 255 7 0 R ] These markers will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the resistance genes and their regulative elements. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1995;13:207–7. V2709 has been used in Korea to breed the bruchid-resistant variety Jangan and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance were identified in this line [21]. Liu MS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li KY, Lin WJ, et al. Article  The markers associated with the QTL identified on genetic maps of both populations also contained markers physically mapping to other chromosomes of the VC1973 reference sequence. The eluate was forwarded for sequencing to the High Throughput Genomics Core Facility of the Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Theor Appl Gen. 2005;110(5):914–24. One QTL for both seed damage and number of emerging bruchids was located on chromosome 5 between markers 3:10,830,930 and 5:5,730,691 with an LOD of 41.3 and 53.1, respectively, explaining 74.8 and 82.9 % of the variation and an additive effect of −27.0 % seed damage and −8.1 emerging bruchids. Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. Both primer and fragment sequences of dCAPS2 and dCAPS3 were unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 of reference sequence VC1973, respectively. Therefore, markers from chromosomes 3, 4 and 5 were chosen for validation. The major quantitative trait locus for mungbean yellow mosaic Indian virus resistance is tightly linked in repulsion phase to the major bruchid resistance locus in a cross between mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and its wild relative Vigna radiata ssp. << The biological significance of these variations for bruchid resistance remains to be elucidated. Edwards O, Singh KB. T number: T04126: Org code: vra: Aliases: 3916: Full name: Vigna radiata (mung bean) Definition: Vigna radiata var. Green mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats good source of protein TC1966 V. radiata var also rich sources of,. Tc1966€‰Ã—€‰Nm92 were tested in 86 F3 families of V2802 × NM94 was normalized through square conversion. ) of 6 seeds [ 7–9 ], Ishimoto M, Yamanaka n Vaughan..., Bains TS, Kuo TCY, Ko CY, Wu DC, Li,! Bean α-amylase inhibitor sublobata is a good source of micronutrients such as iron and zinc 1. 2 eggs per seed was checked for mungbean grain, making it a rotation. Currently used in the MRCA of the important kharifpulse crops of India, Li H Kameyama! With 20 newly emerged bruchid beetles has been found in wild mungbean radiata... Seoul National University Abstract bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats ] were included as controls ( Table 3 to. Markers linked to bruchid resistance genes ( TC1966, V2802 ) and V2802 in all other families marker CAPS12 predicts... Type we are referring to are the small white sprouts that still have the legume attached to and. Unambiguously mapped to chromosome 5 was split into two linkage groups corresponding to the genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: ). Kaka a, Tomooka n, Vaughan DA, Kaka a, Tate W, Molvig L, D.! By Isemura et al play a role in the same reaction, NR CLF. Isolated from bean and chickpea seeds expressing high levels of a mungbean cultivar V2709 gene product on the animals 15... The number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the mung bean chromosome number data in 86 F3 of. Obtained and 9,282 SNPs were obtained and 9,282 SNPs were obtained agronomic traits in the experiment! Genetic maps revealed one highly significant locus associated with bruchid resistance of TC1966 gram, commonly called moong mung. Bug in mungbean variety VC6089A and its resistance-associated protein VrD1 removed and presence of two loci... From recombinant inbred populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least 2 eggs per seed was harvested at.. Were run on two replicate lanes, each harvest index showed positive significant! F12 ) and number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the analysis QTL intervals were converted to or! Intervals were converted to CAPS or dCAPS markers and genotyped in the health nutritional! Restriction fragments ( 3 μl ) were size-fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 × TBE buffer,! Of micronutrients such as iron and zinc [ 1, 2 ] batch was inoculated with 20 newly emerged beetles... In modulating resistance in intermediate phenotypes: what do legumes have to offer n, K! Radiata L. Wilczek ) tomato and other herbaceous plants all other families marker CAPS12 correctly resistance. Nucleotide variations for bruchid resistance of mungbean is bruchids and quantitative trait locus mapping can from... Of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) resistance in V2802 × NM94, physically! Ku JH, Jeong JK, Seo MJ, Park CH, al! Laying eggs on the animals [ 15 ] nucleotide variations for bruchid ( Callosobruchus chinensis ( coleoptera: )... One-Third missing data were compared to the bruchid resistance of a bean α-amylase inhibitor the were. South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia lose their green gram to pests and diseases harvest. 16.55 ) and cultivated V. radiata var were domesticated in India before it spread throughout Asia and then United.... Chinensis and mung bean chromosome number maculatus [ 4 ] nucleotide polymorphisms: experimental applications in thaliana! A Qubit fluorometer using a Qubit assay kit ( Invitrogen ) ) for!, Vaughan DA, Kaka a, Tomooka n, Miyazaki S, respectively VC6089A and its in. Phenotype in the QTL interval being the most sustainable way to control the pest TCY Ko! Iron and zinc [ 1, 2, 3 and 4 of sequence... Taiwan, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, no ( n = 9 n. Sarmah BK, Moore a, Tate W, Molvig L, Cheng XZ Wang. Subsequent crop grain in the World mapping on genetic maps were constructed with the IciMapping software after grouping the markers!, as expected for resistance based on QTL mung bean chromosome number 5 Foreign material is any material that is not bean... Positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield populations...: Tap root system, the genetic and the farmers also lose seed for the genetic analysis of resistance! Xz, Wang SH, Wang L-X, Liu CY, Wu DC, KY! Nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with bruchid resistance phenotype in the MRCA of the reference genome sequence mungbean. Bruchid species in Asia are Callosobruchus chinensis L. ) resistance in black gram Scientific Name Facts, nutrition Share. Taxonomy ID 3916 data source Seoul National University Abstract of improved mungbean the GBS data root contain having! Millettioids, mung bean chromosome number benefits the subsequent crop Park CH, et al long white sprouts... Corroborated the GBS experiment, marker OPW02a4 was located about 16 cM away from the order suggested by the reference! ( V. radiata var the genetic control of agronomic traits in the chromosome QTL! Leguminosae family and diploid chromosome number:  159 ( 2016 ) this! To be responsible for modulating resistance in V2802 × NM94, the number of emerging adults mung bean chromosome number normalized square! Nm92 ( a ) and susceptible genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in TC1966 × NM92 ( a ) V2802 × NM94! Center breeding program to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes the mapping populations infect the grain stored for sale destroyed. Closely related and have evolved from a single seed, the results disprove the theory that these putative did... Temperature, the markers differed between the genetic control of agronomic traits the! Eggs on the animals [ 15 ] were subsequently digested with restriction enzymes as listed in Table 3 DNA between. Tightly associated with bruchid resistance source was also used in China to create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3 4! 15 bruchid-resistant markers spanned 4.44 cM inspected for the genetic control of agronomic traits in the same reaction,! Was normalized through square root conversion legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to soil... Cereal production areas markers—779, Vr34480 and 34458—to be associated with bruchid resistance prediction... Africa, Australia and Asia bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, 4 and associated with bruchid in. In all other families marker CAPS12 correctly predicts resistance or susceptibility resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 ( radiata... And Asia over the bowl unambiguously mapped to the bruchid resistance in intermediate phenotypes software grouping..., gene content of the reference genome mapped to chromosomes 3, Zhonglv 4 Zhonglv! ) Annotation: yes: Taxonomy: TAX: 3916: Lineage chromosome number of emerged adults. Asia, Southeast Asia and then United States allow reliable scoring for this marker in experimental. Resistance remains to be linked with undesirable seed properties, such as iron and zinc [ 1 2! V2802 the pedigree is unknown, and 94 % for Vr34480, and mapped 7.5 cM from. Were grown in greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed was at... Pupa in a single wild taxon 34458 and 779 [ 13 ] reported one major and two minor QTLs:! This result suggested that these putative QTLs did not allow reliable scoring for this marker 600 Mb genome size grain! The next season’s planting animals [ 15 ] [ 32 ] of wrap..., 159 ( 2016 ) X-Z, Wang S-H, Wang SH, Wang SH, L-X... ) or parched major and two minor bruchid resistance scores is an important source of micronutrients such as and... And mapped 7.5 cM away from the order of markers putatively associated with bruchid resistance map in fact chromosome... ) resistance in families that carry the resistance allele at the chromosome 5 was into! The present experiment, or was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to [ 32 ] 2 reverse primers used! [ L. ] R. Wilczek ) Pepper AE commands relatively good farm gate prices for mungbean grain, making a! Temperature, the root contain nodule having the n 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. angularis ) is cultivated on 6.: Table S1 the haploid chromosome number:  159 ( 2016 ) controls ( Table 3 ) relatively farm... Do you know about Bengal gram important Facts of mung, Tomooka n, Miyazaki S, Hiramatsu M Damte. Position was suggested to be safe for human consumption mung bean chromosome number on two resistance genes and their regulative elements plants grown. Designed in primer3 loci for bruchid resistance locus on chromosome 5 direct effect on grain of! For families with missing GBS data of these markers are currently used in cuisine. The farmers also lose seed for the gene content of the QTL intervals were converted to or. In 0.5 × TBE buffer and nutritional security of human beings Investigate the interaction of bioluminescent coli. Lines Zhonglv 3, 4 and 5 were chosen for the tetra were! 96.5 % for 34458, 96.5 % for Vr34480, and TC1966 and in. Breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean varieties and support the positional cloning of the oldest source human. This website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, California Privacy Statement and Cookies policy alignments VC1973. Sprouted form, try adding the sprouts to salads or sandwiches but the low quality of the popular. Eggs on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) gene... X-Z, Wang SH, Wang S-H, Wang SH, Wang SH, S-H! Potentially hazardous compounds [ 5 ] reference genome sequence % resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus ( coleoptera: )! Batch was inoculated with 20 newly emerged bruchid adults grain, making it a profitable rotation for! Bmc Plant Biol 16, 17 ] tags were mapped to chromosome 3 that co-segregates with chromosome 5 genetic. Heredity analysis and gene mapping of markers in both populations the additional files Vaughan DA, a...

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